The tissue regeneration that enables physiological oxidation of the tissue slows over the years.
The epidermis becomes thinner and less efficient at regeneration. The dermis produces less collagen, which causes greater flaccidity. Fat cells are lost from the subcutaneous tissue, decreasing its volume and elasticity.
This happens naturally and the visible effects are the wrinkles and expression lines that gradually appear. The skin loses volume and firmness (lower tissue density).
This is the most common and physiological type. It depends on genetics, race and predominant skin type.
Prevention is essential to its adaptation.
Exposure to the sun is the main external factor responsible for skin aging. Solar radiation causes tissue oxidation, which damages the skin, decreasing its ability for regeneration and protection. This continuous damage wrinkles the skin’s surface and changes its pigmentation.
Pollution, smoking and malnutrition are significant factors that accelerate the natural aging process.
This type of aging affects women and is mainly due to falling levels of oestrogen at menopause.
Lower hormonal levels speed up collagen loss in the dermis, decrease elasticity, skin thickness, and intercellular cohesion. In addition, there is a reduction in hydration, with changes in the pigmentation and the dreaded drop in the cell renewal.
Blotches and skin marks, or melanoderma are produced by a change in the process of natural pigmentation of the skin.
Melanin is the substance that gives skin its colour. Melanin build-up (hyperpigmentation) or lack of melanin (hypopigmentation) causes different types of marks:
These are the most common and are linked to sun exposure.
Melasma or chloasma
This is a brownish area that can be aggravated by the oestrogen peak during pregnancy.
After a tissue inflammation, like a wound, more deeply pigmented areas can develop.
These are circular melanocytes (moles) that may be raised.
Malignant neoplasm of the melanocytes, with irregular edges and with abnormal pigmentation that grows steadily and can cause distant metastases. We recommend that if you have any questions about any marks or spots on your skin, you see your dermatologist (Asymmetric, Edge, Colour, Diameter, Evolution, Rule).
Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease that causes pigmentation to disappear.
Acne vulgaris is a skin condition characterised by an excess production of sebum, which tends to appear in adolescence. This is when the body reaches the androgenic peak necessary for the development of the sebaceous glands.
There are different types of skin lesions (comedones, papules, pustules and nodules).
It is characterised by follicular epidermal hyperproliferation (the cells do not flake off), excess sebum production that blocks the pores, and lesions that cause inflammation and increase in the activity of Propionibacterium acnes.
There are several clinical forms, such as excoriated acne, acne caused by cortisone and acne conblobata.
Excessive sweating or hyperhydrosis happens when more sweat than is physiologically normal is produced.
It affects 2 % of the general population, and there are different therapeutic alternatives, such as topical antiperspirants, botulinum toxin infiltration, iontophoresis, anticholinergics, beta-blockers, antidepressants and even endoscopic sympathectomy.
Rosacea is a chronic skin disorder that affects the face and produces attacks of redness (flushing) and permanent injuries in the central area of the face (cheeks, forehead, nose, mouth and chin).
It can cause vascular dilatations (telangiectasisas), papules-pustules (lesions containing pus), flushing, ocular symptoms (itching or blepharitis) or thickening of the surface of the skin that affects the nose (rhinophyma), forehead, cheeks, chin, ears or eyelids.
This treatment is based on skin protection (before exposure to ultraviolet radiation, the cold, etc.), skincare (hypo-allergenic soap) and oral treatments (tetracycline, isotretinoin, sulfones) and topical products (metronidazole, ivermectin, azelaic acid).
In many cases, rosacea can be mistaken for other skin conditions, such as atopic dermatitis or acne, because the symptoms can appear similar to the naked eye.
Bruises or haematomas are caused by bleeding within the skin when blood vessels are damaged by an injury.
Their frequency depends on capillary fragility.
Their clinical evolution starts with a bright red appearance with inflammation, which turns purple. This happens because the blood starts to coagulate and is then absorbed.
The blood may accumulate within the skin tissue as petechiae (red dots), purple bruises (larger flat areas) or ecchymosis (areas of large haematomas).
This is not to be confused with an erythema, which is a reddening of the skin that becomes paler when pressed.
The skin becomes dehydrated when it loses water. This accentuates expression lines and causes increased flaking. It can also be associated with dryness, rash and inflammation.
This happens when the layers of skin are unable to hold the necessary ambient moisture or water molecules. Starved of water, the cells die more quickly and the skin flakes because we lose cells that through a hydration structure in deep and surface layers could be maintained.
By adding emollients, this structure is preserved, because water molecules remain in the skin, which can continue to perform its barrier functions. In addition, if we reduce the adverse conditions (ultraviolet radiation, cold, heat, humidity, etc.), we can make skin firm and bright again.
Sensitive or intolerant skin is unable to withstand the use of topical substances and it reacts to contact with these, causing itching, swelling, irritation and erythema.
This is usually due to an underlying skin disease such as rosacea, dermatitis (atopic dermatitis or seborrheic dermatitis) or contact eczema.
The strategy for treating sensitive skin is to prevent contact with these irritants, and daily care with hypo-allergenic and non-irritant substances.